- Forums - Sign Up - Reply - Search - Statistics -
www.mast-victims.org forum / Health / tudy on the Feasibility of Future Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects of Mobile Telephone Base
Author Message
admin
# Posted: 15 Sep 2005 02:26
Reply 


Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation Final Report
Swiss Research Foundation on Mobile Communication Project A2003-9
www.mobile-research.ethz.ch Reference 14

Final Report
Project reference: 14
Applicant’s name: Dr. Georg Neubauer
Project title: Study on the Feasibility of Future Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects of Mobile Telephone Base Stations

1. State of Research

1.1 Research activities performed, milestones and deliverables accomplished

BACKGROUND: The introduction of mobile phones using the digital GSM 900 / DCS 1800 systems in the
1990s led to a wide use of this technology and subsequently to an increase in the environmental exposures
to RF fields, the introduction of new technologies has intensified this process. Such installations are often
situated close to dwellings or houses and have become the focus of concerns of parts of the population in
recent years.
These concerns resulted in the demand for epidemiological studies on the potential health effects of the RF
emissions of such base stations. Within the scientific community the usefulness of epidemiological studies to
investigate health effects related to the RF fields from mobile base stations has been debated
controversially due to a number of unsolved methodological problems. Up to now only a few cross sectional
surveys on possible effects of base stations as well as several cluster investigations of populations residing
near TV and radio transmitters were performed. These studies do not allow any conclusions and sound
large scale studies are lacking. Several questions remain open, e.g. the adequate type of study design, the
endpoints to be investigated, the adequate exposure metric and the methodology how to deal with the
emissions from other RF sources.

OBJECTIVE: This research project brings together in a collaborative effort leading international scientists in
RF-engineering/dosimetry and epidemiology to jointly assess the feasibility of epidemiological studies on
health impacts of RF-exposure from mobile phone base stations.

METHODOLOGY: The project consists of three parts:
1) Analysis of existing study designs of epidemiological studies (January 2004 – March 2005)
Existing epidemiological studies on RF sources and health are analysed to describe existing study designs
and to identify strengths and weaknesses. Existing epidemiological and human experimental studies on
base station exposure are critically and systematically reviewed.
2) Comparison and analysis of dosimetric concepts (February 2004 – March 2005)
Existing exposure assessment methodologies are evaluated and the suitability for epidemiological studies is
examined. The contribution from other RF sources to the total exposure is taken into account.
3) Expert workshop (October 2004)
In the last step the developed specifications were evaluated by experts in different fields in the frame of a
workshop.

1.2 Findings
One has to be aware that biological relevant exposure circumstances in respect of RF exposure are
unknown. Exposure from mobile phone base station may be relevant compared to other RF sources, if
• cumulative exposure time above a relatively low threshold
• or cumulative whole body exposure
• or the frequency and/or the signal characteristics
turn out to be biological crucial. In every case it is recommended to take contributions from other sources
into account. Nocebo effects should be considered in particular when performing studies on soft outcomes.
The Nocebo effect is the inverse of the Placebo effect and means that adverse symptoms are expressed by
expectations (due to concerns).

Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation Final Report
Swiss Research Foundation on Mobile Communication Project A2003-9
www.mobile-research.ethz.ch Reference 14
It has been shown that data on individual's exposure is scarce and little is known to what extent different
exposure sources contribute to a subject's overall exposure. For base station studies, no adequate exposure
metric for studying long term effects is available at the moment (distance alone cannot be recommended,
the use of analytical calculations is questionable, the use of monitoring systems and dosimeters is
promising, but needs to be evaluated). One crucial question is whether a reliable method can be developed
in order to assess exposure of large study collectives. The answer to this question is relevant for the
feasibility of epidemiological studies on base stations. Possible approaches to assess exposure are given
below:
• One concept could be the use of monitoring systems to assess variations in time of different
contributions, in particular in studies where people are expected to stay at the same location.
• Another solution might be the use of dosimeters to determine individuals exposure where people
are expected to change their location during their day.
• Numerical and/or analytical tools could be implemented to give crude estimates (for stratification)
of exposures from specific fixed transmitting installations.
Each of these methods has strengths and weaknesses. Any exposure assessment methods has to be
validated in a given collective. We have to be aware that we are at the beginning stages. In order to design
a valid epidemiological study more knowledge about the contribution of different EMF sources to the total
exposure on an individual and a population level is needed. Thus, systematic studies to evaluate individual
exposure of different parts of the population are recommended. In addition, such studies allow to validate
different exposure assessment methods for different population subgroups.

1.3 Problems
SCIENTIFIC PROBLEMS: One of the crucial aspects of epidemiological base station studies is the
question whether base station exposure is relevant compared to exposure from all other EMF sources or
whether it can be neglected in any circumstance. In order to answer this question one major problem is
that we do not know which exposure circumstances might be biologically relevant or critical. Base station
exposure might be relevant if one is interested in total exposure time above a very low threshold, e.g. > 0.5
V/m, it may be relevant for 24 hours whole body exposure, but seems not to be relevant for momentary
exposure levels at a specific body site. If an effect is extremely frequency and/or signal specific, base
station exposure might be relevant, too. In contrast, if the focus is on rather high and local exposure levels,
mobile phone exposure or the contributions from other local sources might be most relevant.
Another crucial aspect of epidemiological base station studies is the way exposure is assessed. Past
residential RF exposure assessments were based on the distance to the source and in a few cases simple
analytical calculations or spot measurements. Distance is poorly correlated to exposure levels and,
therefore, the use of distance as an exposure metric is not recommended. Analytical tools and spot
measurements are problematic in studies involving retrospective exposure assessment approaches and
might lead to severe exposure misclassification. Reasons for exposure misclassification are the contribution
from other RF sources and the exposure variations in time and space and variations due to changing
weather conditions. In many countries measurement campaigns have been performed using different
protocols. Spot measurements have been most common, but, in some cases monitoring equipment was
used as well. All of these measurements have been stationary, and usually broadband equipment was used
which does not distinguish contribution from different RF sources. These measurements have usually been
made as a result of public concern about base station exposures or other specific sources, and do not
reflect the RF exposure in the general population. No information on personal exposure was found in any of
the examined studies. Thus, at present, little information on individuals’ exposure in the general population
is available, making it problematic to estimate the exposure from all radio frequency sources in the general
population. A better knowledge of the distribution of total exposure, as well as a contribution from different
sources would allow for a design of more efficient studies.
Hence, more measurement campaigns focusing on exposure in samples representative for general
population are urgently needed. An attempt should also be made to develop good proxies. It is not the first

Forschungsstiftung Mobilkommunikation Final Report
Swiss Research Foundation on Mobile Communication Project A2003-9
www.mobile-research.ethz.ch Reference 14
3/8
priority to obtain an exact value for the total exposure, but rather to know factors which can be relatively
easily obtained and allow to divide the study collective accurately in exposed and non exposed groups or in
groups which are exposed to a varying degree. A suitable proxy has to capture all relevant sources of
exposure in the radio frequency and microwave frequency range. Given the limited knowledge at present, a
single exposure assessment approach can not be recommended. There may exist specific populations which
have only one dominant exposure source (e.g., in occupational settings or people living close to strong
transmitters), however this will rarely happen for base stations. The importance of co-exposure to other
sources depends on the assumption of effect specificity and the proportion of their contribution to the
overall exposure. Neglecting of such sources will introduce exposure misclassification. If only a low
proportion of the study population is exposed, a high specificity (truly unexposed) is more important than a
high sensitivity (truly exposed).
Possible dosimetric approaches are summarized below:
• One approach might be the use of monitoring systems to assess variations in time of diffe

Anonymous
# Posted: 11 Oct 2005 01:11
Reply 


Dear All

I would have thought that it is fairly simple to initially perform studies.

If one analyses people whose bedrooms are in the main beam from a phone mast, one could assume they sleep there for roughly 7 hours every night. Thus one could calculate their minimum exposure. One can measure the radiation levels in their bedroom and indeed over their bed.
Their blood can be analysed and details of symptoms taken.
The room can be shielded from the radiation and note taken of whether some of the symptoms disappear.
For starters what could be better. Why wait?

Anonymous
# Posted: 15 Oct 2005 00:40
Reply 


Dear Anonymous.

When the beam from a phone mast is straight on all your living quarters from only 15 to 28 meters away your whole house is irridated.
ALL your bedrooms are in the MAIN beam.
And, yes, we measured the radiation level in the bedrooms, and for that matter in the beds.

In Britain we can NOT get our blood analysed, and the GP will NOT take details of the symptoms on account of mast radiation.

We shielded from the radiation, and took notes, but UMTS is som sinister shit and will still keep you awake and sick like a dog.

We did not wait, but like so many others in the endwe had to flee our home.
Try it.
It is absoulutly a experience anyone can do without.
Best regards, and Not anonymous
Agnes

Your reply
Bold Style  Italic Style  Underlined Style  Image Link  URL Link 

» Username  » Password 
You can post anonymously by entering a nickname with no password (if that nickname has not been taken by another member) or by leaving both fields empty. If you have an account you can also log in from this page without posting a message.
 

These forums are running on simple bulletin board miniBB™ © 2001-2019