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Nevada City’s council foregoes 5G moratorium, will strengthen existing telecom ordinance
USA Created: 2 May 2019
A proposed moratorium by Nevada City on 5G wireless turned out to be a no-go, after the city’s attorneys advised the council members they could not legally impose one.

Nevada City’s council did expand its already existing wireless telecommunications ordinance, however, in order to establish control over wireless facilities on private land.

In February, council members approved an ordinance to limit putting small cell facilities on PG&E poles and other utility-company owned structures, and set “reasonable” limits on output to protect public health, safety and welfare. The ordinance established a three-tiered system for the approval of wireless telecommunications facilities based on size and location.

The city council subsequently asked staff to prepare an ordinance to make telecommunications regulations applicable citywide, not just in public right of ways. In a staff report, City Manager Catrina Olson noted consultant Rusty Monroe had drafted a draft ordinance that completely replaced the already existing ordinance, and expressed concern with the possible expense of starting over from scratch.

“As we learned … there are inefficiencies and extra expenses involved in having consultants, attorneys and council members all involved in the process without clear direction from the council on how to proceed and how aggressive it wants to be in its regulations,” the staff report stated.

Olson told the city council members at the April 24 meeting the intent is to fill in the existing gaps. The council could choose to either amend and add to the existing telecommunications regulations applicable to public right of ways that was previously adopted, to extend those regulations citywide, or totally replace the existing ordinance with a rewrite as recommended by Monroe.

During public comment, many of those in attendance expressed concerns about the potential health effects of the proliferation of wireless technology.

Resident John Lumiere-Wins told council members that Wi-Fi affects brains negatively, interfering with its pathways and causing irreversible damage.

“This stuff is dangerous,” he said. “It’s hurting people.”

Consulting attorney Scott Porter acknowledged the council’s desire to take an aggressive position, and will draft an amended ordinance and submit it for public comment well ahead of any scheduled public hearing.

5G cannot be prohibited, staff says

Staff also had been directed to bring to the council either an urgency ordinance regulating 5G networks, or a moratorium on applications for such 5G facilities until an ordinance could be prepared and adopted.

The staff report noted that because Nevada City previously adopted a moratorium on wireless facilities in the right of way, the city cannot now establish another interim ordinance affecting the same property.

“If the city were to adopt an urgency ordinance to totally prohibit 5G technology, such an ordinance would likely be challenged, and the city would bear substantial defense costs,” the staff report stated.

The report added, however, that any of the current designs of 5G facilities that would be placed on existing power poles would not meet the design guidelines approved by Nevada City, which would trigger a discretionary review that would allow location and aesthetics considerations.

While Nevada City cannot impose a moratorium, it can regulate 5G facilities in other ways, such as aesthetic concerns, Porter explained.

“The (amended wireless) ordinance we are working on will resolve these concerns,” he said. “I don’t see the need for an urgency ordinance.”

After hearing public comment from those in attendance who primarily wanted a moratorium, the council members agreed to not go forward with a separate urgency ordinance for 5G and instead work toward strengthening the current telecommunications ordinance.

No date has been set yet for the release of that draft.
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Source: The Union, Liz Kellar, 30 Apr 2019

Syracuse councilors question potential health risks from 5G
USA Created: 2 May 2019
Verizon Wireless wants to deploy 5G smart cell technology in the city of Syracuse. City officials describe the potential of 5G as huge, doing things like enabling autonomous vehicles, augmented reality, and enhanced broadband. But some are questioning whether there are any potential health risks from the new technology.

The Syracuse Common Council is debating the approval of a license agreement with Verizon to install small wireless facilities on the city’s streetlights. Mark Coon, a regulatory manager for Verizon, said the consensus of the health and scientific communities is that there are no known health effects from wireless equipment that operates under federal guidelines.

“Wireless technology for wireless communications transmits radio frequency signals over the airwaves, no different than your garage door opener, or a baby monitor or a Wi-Fi router in your home," Coon said. "5G is no different than 4G, is no different than any of the generations of wireless services, as far as that radio frequency transmission.”

But councilors said they have constituents telling them to vote no on the deal, over concerns about cancer. Councilors pointed to countries around the world and cities on the West Coast, banning 5G. Councilor Bryn Lovejoy-Grinnell said there are a lot of unknown health and safety risks.

“I think it’s worth exploring that further, because I don’t think we have a great view, at this point, what the consensus is," Lovejoy-Grinnell said. "We have an obligation to make sure that our citizens are safe and that this technology doesn’t pose a risk of danger to them.”

If the agreement does go through, Verizon could deploy 100 nodes in the first year on the southwest and northeast sides of the city. The council could vote on the deal or put it on hold, Monday.
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Source: WRVO Public Media, Tom Magnarelli, 02 May 2019

Running Out of Children, a South Korea School Enrolls Illiterate Grandmothers
South Korea Created: 28 Apr 2019
As the birthrate plummets in South Korea, rural schools are emptying - To fill its classrooms, one school opened its doors to women who have for decades dreamed of learning to read.

GANGJIN COUNTY, South Korea — Every morning on her way to school, Hwang Wol-geum, a first grader, rides the same yellow bus as three of her family members: One is a kindergartner, another a third grader and the other a fifth grader.

Ms. Hwang is 70 — and her schoolmates are her grandchildren.

Illiterate all her life, she remembers hiding behind a tree and weeping as she saw her friends trot off to school six decades ago. While other village children learned to read and write, she stayed home, tending pigs, collecting firewood and looking after younger siblings. She later raised six children of her own, sending all of them to high school or college.

Yet it always pained her that she couldn’t do what other mothers did.

“Writing letters to my children, that’s what I dreamed of the most,” Ms. Hwang said.

Help came unexpectedly this year from the local school that was running out of school-age children and was desperate to fill its classrooms with students.

South Korea’s birthrate has been plummeting in recent decades, falling to less than one child per woman last year, one of the lowest in the world.

The hardest hit areas are rural counties, where babies have become an increasingly rare sight as young couples migrate en masse to big cities for better paying jobs.

Like other rural schools, Daegu Elementary, in Ms. Hwang’s district, has seen its students dwindle. When Ms. Hwang’s youngest son, Chae Kyong-deok, 42, attended it in the 1980s, it had 90 students in each grade. Now, the school has only 22 students in total, including one student each in its fourth- and fifth-grade classes.

This year, the worst calamity of all struck the district.

“We went around villages looking for just one precious kid to enroll as a first grader,” said the principal, Lee Ju-young. “There was none.”

*SNIP* read the rest of the article via the source link below...
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Source: New York Times, Choe Sang-Hun, 27 Apr 2017

Samsung Electronics supplies 53,000 5G base stations for Korean carriers
South Korea Created: 28 Apr 2019
Samsung Electronics has already provided a total of 53000 5G radio base stations to Korea’s three mobile operators, the Asian vendor said in a statement.

Samsung Electronics said that 5G service is now commercially available to consumers and enterprises from all three mobile carriers in 85 cities across Korea.

Korean operators SK Telecom, KT Corp. and LG Uplus have been transmitting 5G signals in Seoul and metropolitan areas since December 2018 using 5G base station radios and 5G core solutions from Samsung’s Networks Business unit.

The company also said that it had provided 5G core solutions to the three carriers.

“Korea is one of the first markets in the world in which the 5G experience is opening up for consumers, and we’re thrilled to play a key role in the nationwide rollout of 5G,” said Paul Kyungwhoon Cheun, EVP and head of the networks business at Samsung Electronics.

Korean operators rolled out their commercial 5G networks using Samsung’s 5G Massive-MIMO Unit (MMU) radio base station in 3.5 GHz spectrum. The virtualized 5G core solutions, provided to all three Korean operators for their 5G commercial launch, support both legacy 4G networks and next generation 5G services in Non-Standalone (NSA) mode. They can also migrate to Standalone (SA) mode through a simple software upgrade in the future, the vendor said.

Samsung also said that its solution implements many of the key technologies of 5G networks, such as Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS), which are essential for network operators to scale their networks and support the new services enabled by 5G technology.

Last week, SK Telecom officially launched commercial 5G services across the country. The telco said that nationwide coverage is being offered through a total of 34,000 5G base stations in 85 cities.

The company has rolled out its 5G network in data traffic-concentrated areas, including university districts, sports stadiums, highways, subway lines (Seoul and Seoul Metropolitan Area) and beaches.

In the second half of 2019, SK Telecom aims to expand its 5G network coverage to nationwide subways, national parks and festival sites.The operator expects to attract approximately 1 million 5G customers by the end of this year. It has a total of 27 million users.

Rival operator KT recently confirmed it has already deployed 15,000 5G base stations in Seoul and will install a total of 30,000 5G base stations across the country by April 5.

The carrier said that its 5G commercial offering will be available in 85 major cities nationwide by the end of 2019.

Meanwhile, LG Uplus said it has already deployed a total of 18,000 5G base stations in Seoul and surrounding areas as well as some metropolitan cities. The carrier announced plans to install 50,000 base stations within the first half of the year.

South Korea completed a tender process through which it awarded spectrum in both the 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz bands. The government made available a total of 280 megahertz in the 3.5 GHz spectrum band and 2,400 megahertz in the 28 GHz band. The spectrum was divided into 28 blocks and 24 blocks.
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Source: RCR Wireless, Juan Pedro Tomás, 10 Apr 2019

High Court asks BTRC for report on mobile tower radiation
Bangladesh Created: 28 Apr 2019
The court has also asked to remove mobile phone towers from roofs.

The High Court has directed Bangladesh Telecom Regulatory Commission (BTRC) to submit a report within four months on the impact of radiation from mobile phone towers on the human body and the environment.

A bench comprising Justice Syed Refaat Ahmed and Justice Md Iqbal Kabir issued the directive on Thursday in response to a writ petition filed on October 18, 2012, by Human Rights and Peace for Bangladesh (HRPB) - a rights organization - seeking the court’s order to prevent radiation from mobile-phone towers.

The bench also issued eleven directives to protect people, trees, and animals from harmful radiation from the mobile phone towers.

The 11 directives are: to make mobile tower radiation according to standards; not to install more mobile phone towers and also remove towers from rooftops of houses, school, colleges, hospitals, clinics, jails, fields, residential areas, heritage and archaeological sites; to take security measures to control radiation; formulate rules in acquiring land to install mobile phone towers; make the BTRC and license owners independently measure radiation in compliance with ITU and IEC codes; replace over-radiated towers with new ones; make the BTRC take responsibility for tower verification and monitoring tests; form a BTRC cell to monitor threats against health; and have the BTRC form an alternative dispute resolution committee and the license owners submit reports every six months.

Secretaries to the Ministry of Post, Telecommunication and Information Technology, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Environment, and the chairmen of BTRC and Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission have been made respondents to the ruling.In response to the petition, filed by HRPB annexing newspaper reports on harmful mobile radiation, the HC on October 30, 2012 ordered the government to examine the level of emission from mobile phone towers and assess its effect on health and environment, and submit two separate reports to it.

Why directives should not be given to take effective steps to control radiation from mobile phone towers installed all over the country, the court asked.

The court also sought reports on radiation measures from the Atomic Energy Commission and told the health ministry to form an expert committee to prepare its report about health threats from radiation.

On February 26, 2017, the HRPB filed an appeal with the HC, which ordered the health ministry to collect reports on the harmful impact of mobile tower radiation on the human body as soon as possible.

Advocate Manzil Murshid represented the petitioner, Khandaker Reza-E-Rakib represented BTRC, and Deputy Attorney General Zinat Haque represented the state.
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Source: Dhaka Tribune, Mizanur Rahman, 25 Apr 2019

5G is live in 3 countries, but we still need answers on health risks
USA Created: 27 Apr 2019
Only days after Swisscom announced its first 5G phones, Switzerland’s Federal Office of Communications gave the carrier permission to start offering commercial 5G services, enabling it to officially launch the country’s first 5G network this week. Right now, the network is live across all of Switzerland’s major cities and tourist areas, making it the third country with standards-compliant commercial 5G service, though 5G devices won’t hit Swisscom stores until next month.

While the network launch is a significant accomplishment, some European outlets have framed the news in a broader context, noting that it came a week after Vaud — one of 26 Swiss cantons, or mini-states — paused further 5G transmitter permitting across its cities based on health concerns. Similar concerns subsequently led Switzerland’s federal government to pledge that it will start measuring 5G-related radiation, assess its risks, and keep the public informed on its findings.

Does this scenario strike you as somewhat out of order? Shouldn’t the government have waited on approving 5G networks until it was certain they pose little or no health risk to the public?

It’s time for the “good news, bad news” game. The good news is that most scientists and engineers agree that the “non-ionizing radiation” put out by cellular devices won’t harm living tissue. Beyond lab test results, they point to decades of widespread radio, television, radar, satellite, and other wireless broadcasts that (seemingly) haven’t biologically hurt anyone.

The bad news is that no one is 100% certain that even basic wireless signals are completely innocuous — assuming they’re at close proximity to your body for extended periods of time. In fact, regulatory agencies across the globe typically limit and require disclosure of wireless emissions, though the limits vary between countries, devices, and other factors.

In the absence of certainty as to safety or danger, people tend to panic. According to this week’s reports, a majority of Swiss citizens reportedly fear potential harm from cellular radiation. The World Health Organization has flip-flopped on the topic, and some people have sued companies over brain tumors allegedly caused by cellular phones. Most recently, grassroots activists have claimed that 5G phones and networks will mutate or microwave people, concepts industry observers dismiss as tinfoil hat-worthy.

Without being so dismissive, it’s worth noting that people can be poisoned by excessive quantities of clean water, so determining whether 5G signals are “dangerous” isn’t necessarily black and white. But it’s increasingly obvious that carriers, chipmakers, and governments need to get ahead of the topic — or as ahead as they can be, since the first 5G networks are already in the wild.

There are three primary 5G transmission variants, which can be roughly divided into low-, mid-, and high-frequency spectra. The low-frequency (600/700MHz) and most mid-frequency spectrum (5GHz or lower) have been used in consumer communications networks for decades, so 5G networks built with them are likely as safe as 4G networks — assuming they don’t materially densify.

However, most of the concern is over densification of those otherwise “likely safe” low- to mid-frequency signals, and the addition of “unknown” high-frequency millimeter wave (24-47GHz) signals to the mix. Skeptics believe that multiplying the number of safe signals to accommodate millions of internet of things devices and cars could do anything from disrupting human sleeping patterns to killing wildlife. They similarly suggest that introducing millimeter wave signals across the world might sterilize or literally cook people.

In short, the concern is that wireless towers will turn the planet into something like a giant microwave oven, making emissions all but inescapable. As crazy as some of these suggestions might sound, cellular phones do indeed transmit on microwave frequencies, and even leading government agencies in major countries have hesitated to say conclusively that they can’t cause harm.

In the United States, the FCC says that “currently no scientific evidence establishes a causal link between wireless device use and cancer or other illnesses,” yet “provides information on some simple steps that you can take to reduce your exposure to RF energy from cell phones” — even though it “does not endorse the need for these practices.”

Thus far, there hasn’t been a critical mass of opposition capable of stopping the growth of 5G networks, and responses around the world parallel the Vaud-Switzerland example, with scattered resistance in one or two cities per state, or one or two states per country. But it’s clear that these objections are going to continue to come up across territories, particularly over higher-density millimeter wave small cells, and may well wind up impeding growth in entire regions of the world. The EU’s parliamentary capital, Brussels, already had problems with limits on 4G radiation levels, and it is seemingly creating issues for 5G as well.

Though I personally am not taking a side here, it’s clear that the time is right for cellular carriers, chipmakers, and governments to provide a better answer to the “is 5G safe?” question than “we’re not sure” or “already asked and answered.” I’m no fan of needlessly drawn out environmental impact studies or moratoriums on development, but if health or lives are at stake, there should be assurances that the networks that blanket our neighborhoods and the devices we let our kids carry are safe.

Assuming 5G carriers and companies have done their due diligence and the evidence is as clear as scientists and engineers have claimed, providing a solid, comprehensively reassuring answer shouldn’t be difficult. And it would conclude this debate for a long time — enough to enable widespread adoption of a new technology that has great potential to change the world for the better, rather than risking harm to people across the globe.
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Source: VentureBeat, Jeremy Horwitz, 19 Apr 2019

Radiation From Cellphones, Wi-Fi Is Hurting the Birds and the Bees; 5G May Make It Worse
USA Created: 23 Apr 2019
Technology is quite literally destroying nature, with a new report further confirming that electromagnetic radiation from power lines and cell towers can disorientate birds and insects and destroy plant health. The paper warns that as nations switch to 5G this threat could increase.

In the new analysis, EKLIPSE, an EU-funded review body dedicated to policy that may impact biodiversity and the ecosystem, looked over 97 studies on how electromagnetic radiation may affect the environment. It concluded this radiation could indeed pose a potential risk to bird and insect orientation and plant health, The Telegraph reported.

This is not a new finding, as studies dating back for years have come to the same conclusion. In fact, one study from 2010 even suggested that this electromagnetic radiation may be playing a role in the decline of certain animal and insect populations. The radio waves can disrupt the magnetic “compass” that many migrating birds and insects use. The creatures may become disorientated, AFP reported.

The electromagnetic radiation also interrupted the orientation of insects, spiders and mammals, and may even disrupt plant metabolism, The Telegraph reported.

As a result of this most recent finding, the UK charity Buglife urged that plans to install 5G transmitters may have “serious impacts” on the environment, The Telegraph reported. For this reason, it suggests these transmitters not be placed on LED street lamps, which would attract insects and increase their exposure.

5G is a fifth generation wireless technology that transmits data at high speeds. It is used by phone towers to make phone calls, text messages and to browse the internet.

In addition, the charity called for further studying of this threat.

"We apply limits to all types of pollution to protect the habitability of our environment, but as yet, even in Europe, the safe limits of electromagnetic radiation have not been determined, let alone applied,” said Matt Shardlow, CEO of Buglife, The Telegraph reported.

In the United States, AT&T plans to be the first to have 5G available, and will launch the network in 12 cities by the end of the year, PC Mag reported.
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Source: Newsweek, Dana Dovey, 19 Apr 2019

WiFi may interact with signaling pathways in the brain, causing irreversible damage
United Kingdom Created: 23 Apr 2019
The effects of repeated WiFi exposure on human health have been widely debated. A recent study reviewed evidence from 23 controlled scientific studies which investigated the health effects of WiFi on animals, human cell lines, and humans to determine once and for all, whether WiFi has a detrimental effect on human health.

WiFi or a wireless network consists of an antenna that is connected to the internet and several wireless devices, such as laptop, phone, etc. The electromagnetic frequency of WiFi is pulsed rather than continuous. This is a critical issue, as pulsed electromagnetic frequencies have a larger biological impact.

A 2015 study argued that more pulsed an electromagnetic frequency, more harmful they are for biological specimens. Researchers have also tried to determine the dose relationship between WiFi exposure and biological effects, and found that a specific intensity range of electromagnetic pulses may produce maximum effects, and this may drop off at lower and higher intensities.

When the impact of pulsed electromagnetic frequency was observed in the brains of mice, it was found that exposure for 1–2 months was relatively modest and that the changes were reversible after removing the trigger. However, months of exposure led to severe irreversible effects on neurons and the brain. These results suggest that the changes induced by pulsed electromagnetic frequencies accumulate over time, with harmful long-term effects.
Should we stop children and pregnant women from using WiFi connected devices?

The pulsed electromagnetic frequencies may be particularly damaging in young children due to the small size of their skulls and reduced skull thickness. This may increase brain exposure to pulsed electromagnetic frequencies.

Pulsed electromagnetic frequencies have also been shown to be particularly potent in embryonic stem cells. As these cells occur at a higher frequency in fetus and children, it further puts them at risk, leading to effects on brain development. This effect is particularly striking considering that WiFi placements are a common fixture around schools these days.

WiFi may interact with signaling channels in the human brain

One of the first studies to elucidate how the pulsed electromagnetic frequencies could affect human health showed that low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic frequencies could be blocked using drugs that block voltage-gated calcium channels. Subsequent studies showed activation of calcium channels in response to pulsed electromagnetic frequencies in plants, animals, and human cells.

Apart from calcium channels, voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and chloride channels were also shown to be activated by pulsed electromagnetic frequencies. In humans, seven different voltage-gated ion channels are known to be activated by exposure to pulsed electromagnetic frequency.

This change was observed within five seconds in cells in culture, suggesting that this is a direct effect of pulsed electromagnetic frequency on the plasma membrane.

The different biological effects of pulsed electromagnetic frequency exposure include oxidative stress, lower female/male fertility, neurological effects, cell death, and damage, changes in steroid hormone levels, calcium overload.

Previous studies that have investigated this effect used computers with WiFi cards. Although WiFi cards have been designed to communicate with WiFi antennae, currently there is no information as to how these pulsed electromagnetic frequencies compare with the radiations of genuine WiFi.

Furthermore, many studies have claim there are no effects of pulsed electromagnetic frequencies as the observed effects were not scientifically significant. However, concluding that there is an absence of effects due to lack of statistical significance may not mean that there is no effect whatsoever.

The ubiquitous presence of WiFi in spaces occupied by humans, particularly in schools should be dealt with caution until the effects of pulsed electromagnetic frequencies on humans are established.

Martin L. Pall. 2018. Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environmental Research. 164 pp.405-416.
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Source: News Medical, Dr. Surat P, Ph.D., 18 Apr 2019

Electronics giant Intel to Exit 5G Smartphone Modem Business
USA Created: 18 Apr 2019
Intel Corporation today announced its intention to exit the 5G smartphone modem business and complete an assessment of the opportunities for 4G and 5G modems in PCs, internet of things devices and other data-centric devices. Intel will also continue to invest in its 5G network infrastructure business.

The company will continue to meet current customer commitments for its existing 4G smartphone modem product line, but does not expect to launch 5G modem products in the smartphone space, including those originally planned for launches in 2020.

“We are very excited about the opportunity in 5G and the ‘cloudification’ of the network, but in the smartphone modem business it has become apparent that there is no clear path to profitability and positive returns,” said Intel CEO Bob Swan. “5G continues to be a strategic priority across Intel, and our team has developed a valuable portfolio of wireless products and intellectual property. We are assessing our options to realize the value we have created, including the opportunities in a wide variety of data-centric platforms and devices in a 5G world.”

Intel expects to provide additional details in its upcoming first-quarter 2019 earnings release and conference call, scheduled for April 25.
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Source: Intel Newsroom, 16 Apr 2019

Canton of Geneva prohibits construction of 5G antennae
Switzerland Created: 18 Apr 2019
The Canton of Geneva has introduced a preliminary ban on the construction of 5G antennae, reported SRF.ch. The cantonal parliament first requires investigations into possible health implications. The decision on the moratorium came in at 58 votes against 28.

The prohibition will only be lifted again if independent scientific findings are available on the possible health effects of 5G. The Geneva government will now turn to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and request independent studies.

In Geneva's Grand Council, it was argued that many mobile operators would explain to consumers that 5G is the same as LTE. However, the environment is increasingly burdened by electromagnetic waves and nobody knows about the health effects. The cantonal parliament also wants to know about the effects on animals.

By the end of the year, Swisscom plans to cover more than 90 percent of Switzerland with a 5G network. Sunrise has been covering 150 cities and locations throughout Switzerland since the beginning of April. With the award of the 5G licences at the beginning of February, the discussion about the health risks of mobile radiation in Switzerland has been resumed.
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Source: Telecom Paper, 11 Apr 2019

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