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City tries to steer wireless antennas away from neighborhoods, schools
USA Created: 20 Dec 2019
New rules in Palo Alto would require telecoms to get exceptions before they can encroach on residential areas.

Palo Alto took its most dramatic action to date to curtail the proliferation of wireless antennas on street poles on Monday night, when the City Council agreed to restrict such equipment in residential neighborhoods.

The new rules aim to alleviate the anxieties of residents who have been arguing for years that the telecommunication equipment causes health, aesthetic and noise impacts. They aim to steer the equipment away from residential zones and toward commercial ones. They also attempt to strike a delicate balance: addressing the anxieties of residents without inviting lawsuits from telecommunication companies.

In the end, neither side was fully satisfied. Dozens of residents submitted letters to the council on Monday to request tougher measures. At the same time, representatives of Verizon and Crown Castle argued in separate briefs that the standards proposed by staff are overly restrictive and illegal.

The council, for its part, acknowledged that the process of adopting standards for wireless equipment remains a work in progress and that the new rules will likely see further changes. By a 6-1 vote, the council agreed that wireless communication facilities should be placed in non-residential districts unless the council grants an exception. The only dissenter was Vice Mayor Adrian Fine, who fully backed the proposed standards but did not support the additions that the rest of his colleagues adopted, including directions to staff to further study the noise impacts of wireless equipment, consider the feasibility of requiring underground vaults for antennas in residential areas and explore proposing a state bill pertaining to wireless equipment.

In addition to giving a preference to equipment in non-residential areas, the newly adopted standards specify that near public schools, wireless equipment should be placed no closer than 600 feet, up from the current standard of 300 feet (an applicant may request an exception to be within 300 feet, but no closer). They also state the city's preference for placing equipment into underground vaults rather than mounting them on poles. And they establish a 20-foot setback from buildings in all zoning districts with no exception.

The discussion comes at a time when the city is seeing a huge influx of applications from wireless companies, with more than 100 antennas recently winning approval in both commercial and residential districts. Planning Director Jonathan Lait told the council that the proposed standards try to "clearly articulate the city's interest to locate wireless communication facilities in the commercial and industrial areas and outside the residential areas."

But for many residents, the 20-foot setback doesn't go nearly far enough. Dozens submitted nearly identical letters arguing that the 20-foot rule "opens the door for the telecom industry to put their ugly, noisy, and potentially hazardous equipment right next to our homes."

Many, including Tina Chow, requested a more meaningful setback. Chow, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, recommended adopting a 100-foot setback requirement, with no exception.

"Otherwise, the whole resolution with objective standards can be sidestepped by wireless companies simply asking for exceptions and having them granted," Chow wrote to the council.

Jeanne Fleming, who is one of the leaders of the effort to oppose new wireless antennas, argued that the city should not provide exceptions to service providers seeking to install equipment in residential zones.

"A setback of 20 feet is an invitation to telecom companies to seek exceptions and they'll place their cell towers wherever they want to," Fleming said.

While many pushed for a 100-foot setback, Lait argued that such a standard would make almost all streetlights and utility poles in residential areas ineligible and put the city in a legally tricky position. The Federal Communications Commission limits local control over communication equipment. In September 2018, the FCC declared in an order that local aesthetic regulations "must be reasonable, objective, non-discriminatory and published in advance" (the order is now being challenged in the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals).

Several representatives of telecommunication companies argued that the new rules fall afoul of the federal standards. Paul Albritton, who is representing Verizon, submitted a letter arguing that the proposed standards are both ill-advised and illegal. Rather than prohibiting antennas in residential zones, the city should state its preference for commercial, office and manufacturing zones but still allow a "less-preferred location" if there is no preferred alternative nearby that is available and technically feasible.

"The various location restrictions imposed by the Draft Standards would prohibit small cells in broad areas of Palo Alto," Albritton wrote. "The option for an exception to some restrictions does not excuse such unlawful prohibition. Instead, the City should adopt reasonable, location preferences."

The proposed law, Albritton argued, violates FCC's prohibition on restrictions that "materially inhibit" the ability of telecommunication companies to enhance services.

"With facilities permitted in only non-residential zones, a small cell in a residential zone would require an exception, as would facilities within 300 to 600 feet of schools. ... The city cannot rely on the exception process to excuse such prohibitive restrictions because it requires applicants to satisfy a vague, quasi-judicial finding that federal and/or state law compel approval."

Michael Shonafelt, an attorney with the firm Newmeyer Dillion, similarly urged the council not to approve the restrictions, which he argued illegally impede the right of wireless companies to use public rights of way. Shonafelt, who is representing Crown Castle, likened the proposed restriction to "discriminatory treatment."

"The resolution singles out wireless telecommunication carriers and infrastructure developers, prescribing onerous aesthetic and engineering restrictions that do not apply to other utilities in the right of way," Shonafelt wrote.

While the council felt comfortable adopting the regulations, despite these objections, City Attorney Molly Stump warned the council not to adopt the broader restrictions proposed by some residents, including an outright ban on wireless communication equipment in residential areas with no exceptions.

"A rule like that would almost certainly be held to be an effective prohibition of wireless services in a large part of our community," Stump said.

As such, it would be subject to a legal challenge, either targeting the ordinance itself or as part of an application for a wireless communication facility, she said.

In declaring commercial areas as a preference for new antennas, city staff pointed to the fact that expressways and major arterials offer larger right of way dimensions and, as such, offer greater opportunities to screen or otherwise conceal a proposed wireless communication facility, according to a report from the Department of Planning and Development Services. Companies requesting exceptions to install equipment in residential areas would need to demonstrate the infeasibility of doing so in commercial districts.

While the new rules limit the abilities of telecoms to mount equipment near schools, they don't go nearly as far as some in the Palo Alto school district had hoped. Todd Collins, president of the Board of Education, cited a resolution that the board passed June calling for a setback of 1,500 feet from schools and requesting that school principals and the district be notified of any applications near school sites.

"I'm not sure what the logic is for the much smaller setbacks," Collins wrote to the council. "There is no value to placing cell towers near schools sites. PAUSD has a total of only 16 school sites in the City of Palo Alto — wireless carriers should be able to give them a wide berth, and still achieve other objectives."

But the council agreed that the standards drafted by staff, while imperfect, represent a major step forward. Councilman Tom DuBois called them "a big improvement" while Mayor Eric Filseth credited staff with "an artful construction that encourages cellphone companies with a combination of carrots and sticks ... not to put these things in residential neighborhoods without strictly excluding the possibility that if they did a bunch of work, they might be able to."

While the city isn't outright banning wireless equipment in residential areas, a move that would likely launch a lawsuit, the city is trying to make telecom companies say, "Do I really want to fight that battle in the residential neighborhood? I'll just stick to the commercial neighborhoods," Filseth said.

"But if we put an outright ban on residential neighborhoods, they can say, 'We can beat that in court in a week so let's do it,'" Filseth said.
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Source: Palo Alto Weekly, Gennady Sheyner, 17 Dec 2019

Verizon Wireless Suing City of Jackson
USA Created: 20 Dec 2019
Verizon Wireless is suing the City of Jackson over what it claims is an unlawful and discriminatory denial of its application to build a cellphone tower in the city. The 90-page lawsuit will proceed to trial after Jackson City Council voted earlier this week to reject reaching a settlement with the corporation.

The lawsuit comes following the council's 3-to-1 vote last September to deny Verizon's application for a permit to build a 150-foot cell phone tower in south Jackson, located in Ward 6. Ward 6 Councilman Aaron Banks, who voted against the permit approval, said that he opposed the construction on the basis of residents' concerns. Those concerns primarily centered on the appearance of the proposed tower, which some residents consider an "eyesore."

On Oct. 16, Alltel Communications filed a lawsuit against the City in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi. It claims that the City's decision was not backed by substantial evidence and violates the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which prevents state and local governments from regulating wireless services. Verizon also claims that the council's vote is discriminatory, since cell-phone towers exist elsewhere in the city, including those owned by other companies.

Verizon applied for a permit to build the tower at 196 Lakeshore Road on July 18. That location, Verizon has maintained, is "critical," as it is the only one that would allow the company "to develop a seamless wireless telecommunications network and to fill a significant gap in coverage and capacity in the area," court documents show.

Jackson Zoning Administrator Ester E. Ainsworth prepared a report on Aug 12 stating that the cell-phone tower construction would not "be detrimental to the continued use, value, or development of properties in the vicinity." On Aug 28, the Jackson Planning Board voted 6-to-3 to recommend that the council approve Verizon's application for a use permit to construct the tower.

But Verizon claims that its plan became derailed after a Sept. 16 public hearing, during which "a single local resident," whom the lawsuit also identifies as "a former City employee," raised "subjective and unsubstantiated opinions" to oppose the construction. The resident, Claude McCants, who is vice president of the Association of South Jackson, voiced concerns about radio frequency emissions stemming from the proposed tower and its detrimental impacts on the environment and potentially even on property values.

The American Cancer Society has stated that cell-phone towers are not linked to any health effects.

Following the public hearing, the zoning administrator sent a letter to Verizon on behalf of the city council. The letter served as an official notice to the company of the council's decision to deny Verizon's application for a use permit.

"The City Council was of the opinion that the criteria for granting the Use Permit had not been met," the letter read.

In the lawsuit, Verizon claims that it "has exhausted all of its administrative remedies." It refers to the injunction as "an appropriate remedy for violation of the TCA."

During its Dec. 10 regular meeting, city council voted 3-to-2 to reject the City's legal department's request to settle with Verizon, meaning that the City will now head to court.

"Being that this is a legal matter, I don't want to speak in detail, but I will say, I stand in support of the Ward 6 residents," Mayor Chokwe A. Lumumba said.

Banks derided Verizon for its "unwillingness to meet with (Jackson) constituents and to help find a workable way" out of the situation. He characterized Verizon's conduct as "a direct insult to not only this city but to the constituents we represent."

"I will say that zoning and land use is the most important thing we do as a city. ... We should have the ability to land use and zone our city as we see fit," Ward 4 Councilman De'Keither Stamps said.

Council President Virgi Lindsay said that while the decision has been a difficult one, it has forced the City to re-evaluate its land use plans and ordinances.

"I think that is the most positive thing that came out of this," she said.
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Source: Jackson Free Press, Seyma Bayram, 12 Dec 2019

Telecom Ericsson will pay over $1 billion to settle US corruption charges
Sweden Created: 12 Dec 2019
Tech companies have been caught in corruption scandals before, but seldom on this scale. Telecom giant Ericsson has settled with the US Justice Department and SEC for just under $1.1 billion over charges of extensive corruption in several countries, including China, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam. The company had been accused of violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act between 2000 and 2016 by bribing officials to land customers, falsifying its records and failing to use "reasonable" accounting controls. The SEC, meanwhile, charged Ericsson with bribery that took place between 2011 and 2017.

The settlement leaves Ericsson largely free of criminal convictions that could have led to sanctions and other stiff penalties, although its Egyptian branch pleaded guilty to violating the FCPA. It's paying about $520.6 million to the DOJ, while the remaining $539.9 million goes to the SEC. For contrast, companies like HP have paid 'just' tens of millions to settle smaller bribery charges.

Ericsson chief Borje Ekholm (who took the role in January 2017) told the media that he considered the corruption "completely unacceptable," pointing out that some of those involved were executives. The company also said it had taken steps to improve both its ethics and its monitoring.

The deal likely won't make everyone happy. Ericsson's behavior went on for the better part of two decades, but the company will largely be off the hook -- the company said it could handle the settlement with "available funds." Still, the payout is significant enough that it might give other tech firms pause if their anti-corruption policies are lax.
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Source: Engadget, Jon Fingas, 08 Dec 2019

U.S. Supreme Court rejects challenge to Berkeley cell phone law
USA Created: 9 Dec 2019
The US Supreme Court on Monday rejected a free speech challenge brought by a trade group against a regulation issued by the California city of Berkeley that requires cell phone retailers to tell customers of certain radiation risks.

The justices left in place a July 2019 decision by the San Francisco-based 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals that refused to block the 2015 regulation that industry group CTIA appealed.

CTIA said the regulation violates the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which protects free speech rights, because the government, without the necessary justification that supports other types of regulations, is forcing retailers to spread a message they disagree with.

The 2015 regulation requires retailers to provider a notice to customers saying that carrying a cell phone can exceed Federal Communications Commission guidelines for exposure to radio-frequency radiation.

“If you carry or use your phone in a pants or shirt pocket or tucked into a bra when the phone is ON and connected to a wireless network, you may exceed the federal guidelines,” the notice says.

CTIA disputed the content of the notice, saying it is misleading because the FCC has concluded that carrying a cell phone is safe.
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Source: Reuters, Lawrence Hurley, 9 Dec 2019

Defense Secretary Asks FCC To Limit 5G Deployment
USA Created: 9 Dec 2019
Telecommunications business, with the urging and support of President Donald Trump, have been rushing to rollout the next level in wireless communications: 5G. But in a little noticed letter Monday, Secretary of Defense Mark Esper urged the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to restrict that rollout, citing “national security, civil service, and the economic benefit of the nation” as the reasons.

In a letter to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai, Secretary Esper said, “I request that the FCC reject the license modification request and not allow the proposed system to be deployed.”

The license to which Esper is referring is proposal by Ligado Networks, LLC, to use some of the federally regulated radio spectrum to deploy 5G across the country.

Esper believes, according to the letter, the granting of this license has “the potential for widespread disruption and degradation of GPS services,” and goes on to conclude, “I request that the FCC reject the license modification request and not allow the proposed system to be deployed.”

In a November 21, 2019 letter to the FCC obtained by the Daily Caller, Valerie Green, Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer of Ligado, argued the GPS interference objection is an old issue that has been addressed. “The issue raised by the DOD letter is not new to the Commission, and the record contains ample evidence for the Commission to conclude that the assertions in the letter lack merit.” Green stressed that “no entity has the authority to squat on someone else’s spectrum and seek to use spectrum not allocated to it.”

Dennis A. Roberson, President and Chief Executive Officer of Roberson and Associates and Chair of the Federal Communications Commission’s Technology Advisory Counsel said, “GPS devices tested did not experience harmful interference from power levels equal to those in Ligado’s proposed operation.”

President Trump has been a vocal proponent of 5G deployment, with some Republicans going as far as calling for the nationalization of the technology. Currently, China is out-spending the US in 5G deployment, according to CNBC, and the Wall Street Journal reports China will soon “leapfrog” the US in availability.

Deployment in the US has been hampered by fears of radiation and other health risks, with states and localities blocking 5G cells.
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Source: Daily Caller, Derek Hunter, 22 Nov 2019

Russian Cows Fitted With Virtual-Reality Headsets
Russia Created: 6 Dec 2019
The grass is greener in a virtual world.

That’s what Moscow region farmers were aiming for when they fitted their dairy cows with virtual-reality headsets to test their milk production.

“Experts noted reduced anxiety and improved overall emotional mood in the herd” during the VR experiment, said the regional agriculture administration.

The second phase of the experiment, it said, will evaluate the VR-wearing cows’ milk production.

The farmers worked with developers and veterinarians, and relied on cattle-vision research, to “create unique software simulating a summer field.”

The administration published a photograph featured a Holstein Friesian wearing a black headset on an overcast day, presumably gazing at a green pasture.

Interfax reported that the experiment was conducted on a farm in Krasnogorsk northwest of Moscow.

The Moscow region agriculture administration cited Dutch and Scottish research suggesting that a calming atmosphere increases dairy production.

It added that local manufacturers plays classical music “whose soothing effect has a positive effect on milk flow.”

The developers plan to expand the VR experiment, it said, if observations continue to show positive results.
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Source: The Moscow Times, 26 Nov 2019

Radiation from smartphones could trigger memory loss in teenagers, new study reveals (2018)
United Kingdom Created: 3 Dec 2019
Smartphone radiation could be destroying the memory performance of a new generation of adolescents, a troubling new study has warned.

Cumulative exposure to mobile devices over the course of a year negatively affects the figural memory of adolescents, scientists found.

Figural memory is mainly located in the right hemisphere of the brain and refers to our ability to make sense of objects including images, patterns and shapes.

Youngsters who hold their phone next to their right ear are the most affected by exposure to radiation.

However, sending text messages, playing mobile games, and browsing the internet may also have negative effects, albeit not as pronounced, the study showed.

Researchers from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) studied nearly 700 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 in Switzerland.

They looked at the link between their daily exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and their memory performance.

The effects of RF-EMF were more pronounced in adolescents using the mobile phone on the right side of the head, the study revealed.

'This may suggest that indeed RF-EMF absorbed by the brain is responsible for the observed associations', said Martin Röösli, Head of Environmental Exposures and Health at Swiss TPH.

Other aspects of wireless communication use, such as sending texts, playing games or browsing the Internet will also cause marginal RF-EMF exposure.

However, these were not associated with the negative development of memory.

Participants had to complete a paper questionnaire that assessed their mobile phone and media usage, as well as their psychological and physical health.

Immediately afterwards they did computerised cognitive tests.

Participants carried a portable measurement device called an exposimeter with an integrated GPS for three consecutive days.

At the same time a time-activity app on a smartphone in flight mode was filled in.

This meant that scientists could link the RF-EMF records to a particular activity or place.

'Changes in figural memory score were negatively correlated with cordless phone calls and, in tendency, with the duration of mobile phone calls and the cumulative RF-EMF brain dose', researchers found.

Dr Röösli emphasised that further research is needed to rule out the influence of other factors.

'For instance, the study results could have been affected by puberty, which affects both mobile phone use and the participant's cognitive and behavioural state.'

The potential effect of RF-EMF exposure to the brain is a relatively new field of scientific inquiry, according to the paper published in Environmental Health Perspectives.

'It is not yet clear how RF-EMF could potentially affect brain processes or how relevant our findings are in the long-term', said Dr Röösli.

'Potential risks to the brain can be minimised by using headphones or the loud speaker while calling, in particular when network quality is low and the mobile phone is functioning at maximum power.'

In 2016 it was revealed that RF-EMF can cause a pain response in amputees.

Researchers claimed to have scientific evidence to support the anecdotal reports made by people with amputated limbs.

The research, published in the journal PLOS ONE , found that in rats with an amputation-like injury the animals showed clear evidence of pain in the presence of the signals.

Dr Mario Romero-Ortega, senior author of the study and an associate professor at the University of Texas at Dallas, said: 'Our study provides evidence, for the first time, that subjects exposed to cellphone towers at low, regular levels can actually perceive pain.'

'Our study also points to a specific nerve pathway that may contribute to our main finding.'

The rats were exposed to EMF signals equivalent to standing near a mobile phone tower almost 131ft (40 metres) away.

Animals received exposure for ten minutes, once a week for eight weeks.

They found that after four weeks, 88 per cent of rats with the nerve injury showed a definite pain response to the signal.

'Many believe that a neuroma has to be present in order to evoke pain. Our model found that electromagnetic fields evoked pain that is perceived before neuroma formation; subjects felt pain almost immediately,' explained Dr Romero-Ortega.

'My hope is that this study will highlight the importance of developing clinical options to prevent neuromas, instead of the current partially effective surgery alternatives for neuroma resection to treat pain', he said.
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Source: Daily Mail, Phoebe Weston, 20 Jul 2018

Could your next cell phone wreck our weather forecasts?
USA Created: 3 Dec 2019
Faint signals from water vapor power our super-accurate forecasts—and if we’re not careful, scientists warn, 5G could drown some of them out.

In 2012, Hurricane Sandy came barreling down on the East Coast. It slammed into the New York region and sat there for several days, dumping torrential rain that caused over a hundred deaths, flooded entire communities, and wrecked local infrastructure.

The destruction almost certainly would have been higher without the detailed, precise forecasts of how the storm would proceed along its track, which scientists were able to feed to emergency management personnel well before the storm made landfall.

Meteorological science has gotten better and better over past decades, squeezing ever more information out of the data gathered at Earth’s surface, through the atmosphere, and from instruments mounted on satellites spinning overhead. The result is increasingly sophisticated, far-reaching, and accurate forecasts.

But the precision we’ve become accustomed to from those forecasts may be under threat, scientists are warning. Our ability to predict with confidence what’s coming down the road weather wise could be set back by 40 years, and a key forecasting tool could be seriously degraded.

Telecommunications technologies like 5G internet need space on the electromagnetic spectrum, the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation that includes microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, gamma and X-rays. Today that space is at a premium. And much of the information that feeds into sophisticated weather models comes from parts of the spectrum that are right next door to areas telecommunications companies want to use for the new technologies.

“It’s like an apartment building of sorts,” explains Jordan Gerth, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. “There’s some general expectation that everybody keeps relatively quiet. In the spectrum land, we have our meteorological application, our science applications, and those that require a very quiet environment and adjacent environment. But the telecom signals are typically very loud, and are also susceptible to leaking outside their space.

“It’s like trying to run a daycare for small children who want to take a nap, but one that’s adjacent to a sports bar. There may be a wall between them, but you’re still going to get noise bleeding through.”

Over the past month delegates from countries and trade groups have gathered at the World Radiocommunications Conference to decide on international rules about how strictly to protect the “bands” of the electromagnetic spectrum crucial to weather forecasting—in other words, how much noise from the sports bar they’ll allow to be heard in the nap room.

In the end they came to a decision that some scientists—including Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA—say may degrade the forecasts in a dangerous way, perhaps irreparably.
What’s at stake

One of the crucial bands, says William Blackwell, an atmospheric scientist and engineer at MIT, is around 23.8 GHz. Water vapor absorbs in this microwave band, leaving behind a faint signal that can be read by satellite-mounted instruments that look at the microwave part of the spectrum. The problem now is that telecommunications companies are interested in using parts of the spectrum right next to that water vapor signal.

The electromagnetic spectrum is like water in a river: There’s only so much of it. Some of the water is necessary to keep the habitat healthy, just like some of the spectrum is necessary for making weather forecasts. But most of the rest of the spectrum has already been allocated for all different kinds of wireless communication—GPS, radio navigation, satellite controls, telecommunications, and more. So demands on the remaining clear bits are growing.

“The reason we’re in this tug of war, it’s because of all these cell phones, just like the one that I’m holding,” says Tom Ackerman, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Washington.

In the past, the communications uses were kept far away from the bands used for weather and climate science work.

“But we’re running out of spectrum real estate,” says Ackerman. “Before, we could coexist nicely, but now the sandbox is full.”

Earlier this year, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission auctioned off part of the microwave spectrum right next to the 23.8 GHz water vapor band. Companies, eager for access to the new space, bid over $2 billion.

Prior to the auction, though, Jim Bridenstine, the administrator of NASA, warned that interference—“leaking” of the big 5G signal into the faint water vapor signal in the 23.8GHz band—could degrade forecast quality to levels not seen since before the microwave sounder era, in the mid-1970s.

At around the same time, NOAA’s acting deputy administrator, Neil Jacobs, told a congressional committee that telecommunications activity in the nearby parts of the spectrum could degrade forecasting accuracy by 30 percent, and could cause the lead time on forecasts of hurricanes to decrease by 2 to 3 days, he said.

They and other scientists asked for strict limits on how “loud” the next-door emissions could be—asking for something like the World Meteorological Association had suggested, a limit of -42 decibel watts (more negative numbers mean stronger limits). Instead, the FCC decided to use a limit of -20 decibel watts.

At the World Radiocommunications Conference this month, the decisions fell in between. The interference, decision-makers landed on, could be -33 decibel watts until 2027, at which point the limits would strengthen slightly to -39 decibel watts.

That’s better than what the FCC proposed, says Gerth, but still far from ideal. “This problem isn’t one that’s going to go away,” he says.

The leading trade group for the U.S. wireless industry, the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA), disagrees. Their executive vice president, Brad Gillen, wrote in a blog post that the NOAA and NASA analyses were based on the wrong microwave sounder instrument, and if more modern ones are considered, the problem goes away. But NOAA and NASA and the Navy disagree.

The internal NOAA and NASA studies analyzing this particular issue are not yet public, so non-government weather scientists are still unable to vet the claims directly.
The satellite era changed weather forecasting

A century ago, the best weather forecasts in the world were mostly well-informed guesswork. Cloud patterns and the feel of wind could provide hints about what the atmosphere might get up to in the next few hours, but looking beyond that was impossible. Today scientists can look more than a week into the future and make a solid prediction of what to expect: rain, snow, sunshine, hurricanes.

By the 1970s, scientists had built the bones of the weather forecasting system we know today. They had developed computer models that described the complicated physics that controls the way air flows around the atmosphere. The more they honed in on the details of the physics, the better their predictions got.

But they found that the atmosphere was a fickle beast to understand. To predict what would happen with the weather in the future, they needed to know exactly what the weather conditions were right now, they found: The physics only worked if they had really good understandings of exactly where things started.

The game, scientists and engineers around the world recognized, was to get the absolute best possible data about the current state of the atmosphere. That would get them the best possible predictions of the future, they thought.

More and more effort went into developing instruments that could very precisely map the entire three-dimensional expanse of the atmosphere, things like exactly how warm the air was from the surface up to the stratosphere, and how much water vapor was streaked through the lower sections of the atmosphere versus higher up, over Chicago and Jakarta and in the middle of the ocean.

One of the critical developments was figuring out exactly how much and where the water vapor was. To do that, scientists relied on the fact that water vapor absorbs electromagnetic radiation at several different frequencies.

As the satellite observations improved, so did the precision and accuracy of weather forecasts. Today’s five-day forecasts are as accurate as a one-day forecast in the early 1980s.

More recently, observations from the many instruments called microwave sounders attached to different satellites orbiting the planet have become even more valuable to forecasters. In the last decade, research from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF, considered the premier weather forecasting agency in the world) shows that microwave frequency data play a critical role in short-term weather forecasting, providing about 20 percent of the information critical to the forecast models.

Microwave sounders mounted on satellites like NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System and the European Meteorological Operational (MetOp) satellites sense the amount of microwave radiation coming out of the atmosphere each time they pass overhead. They can tell how much water vapor is present by looking at the emissions in a suite of different bands—one of which is at 23.8 GHz. The water vapor signal in that band, though, is small, like a streamlet. The microwave sounders are now very good at measuring that faint signal.

Even if the part of the spectrum used for weather forecasting is protected thoroughly—and MIT’s Blackwell is not convinced it will be—there are many more bands crucial to weather forecasting that are under threat of similar encroachment.

“The same thing is happening in other parts of the spectrum,” he says. “The 5G spectrum is cozying up to those bands, to this sacred spectral territory. And that’s going to be a problem.”
Click here to view the source article.
Source: National Geographic, Alejandra Borunda, 26 Nov 2019

5G radiation no worse than microwaves or baby monitors: Australian telcos
Australia Created: 3 Dec 2019
The electromagnetic energy (EME) produced as a result of using 5G is much the same as many household items, Australia's two largest telcos have said.

The pair have added that the use of small cells is also not a cause for concern.

"EME in the home from mobile networks is typically below those emitted by standard household devices such as a microwave oven or baby monitor," Optus wrote in a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Communications Inquiry into 5G.

"Some of these concerns are being fuelled by false and alarmist claims from unreliable sources. Both industry and government need to work harder to counter any misinformation and ensure that the community is armed with the facts to enable it to embrace the technology that will bring so many benefits to people's lives."

Testifying to the committee last week, Telstra said small cells provide faster connections and better response times at lower EME levels.

"Leading up to the public launch of 5G with the 3.5GHz network.... What we found again was that they were getting a much faster response time, because the network was quicker and you could deliver the signal quicker," Telstra principal of 5G EME strategy Mike Wood said.

"That meant that the signal was lower and the EME levels were lower -- in fact, they were very similar to 3G, 4G and WiFi."

Echoing the thoughts on EME levels being similar to household items, Wood said 5G EME was similar to walkie-talkies, WiFi hotspots, key tags, and remote controls.

"What we find is that because 5G's very efficient, it typically runs at a lower level than an everyday device in your house like a baby monitor or a microwave oven," he said.

"When we've done our tests on our 5G network, they're typically 1,000 to 10,000 times less than what we get from other devices. So when you add all of that up together, it's all very low in terms of total emission. But you're finding that 5G is in fact a lot lower than many other devices we use in our everyday lives."

Wood added there is no evidence for cancer or non-thermal effects from radio frequency EME.

"There's some evidence for biological effects, but none of these are non-adverse," Wood told the committee.

"So they've really looked at all of the research they need to set a safety standard, and in summary what they said is that, if you follow the guidelines, they're protective of all people, including children."

On the issue of governmental revenue raising from its upcoming spectrum sale, Optus said it would be wrong of government to view it as a cash cow, as every dollar spent on spectrum is not used on creating networks.

"Critically, in order to achieve the coverage and deployment required, 5G networks will require significant amounts of spectrum," the Singaporean-owned telco wrote.

"Government risks stifling the deployment of 5G networks ... if it focuses too heavily on the money obtained through allocations rather than on the economic (not to mention social) value created by the use of the spectrum."

Last year, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) told Senate Estimates that spectrum sales should be less concerned about making money from spectrum and more concerned about providing the best value for consumers.

"Our view at the ACCC has always been we're not so much concerned with the money raised from spectrum; we just want to make sure the spectrum can go to players so that they can operate in the market and be competitive in the market," ACCC chair Rod Sims said at the time after Labor questioned the dollar figure the spectrum was sold for.

Also speaking last week, the Queensland Water Directorate as well as Seqwater noted a number of issues they have with telco equipment located on their water towers, including not being able to switch off equipment in emergencies without violating the Federal Criminal Code.

"It's very hard when we've got a lot of overcrowding on some of these towers and we have a number of unknowns and we cannot locate the owners," Seqwater legal counsel Carmel Serratore said.

"In particular, in circumstances where carriers have actually plugged into our main switchboard and we can't do isolations, it can become problematic in emergencies and things like that. I understand it comes from the old Criminal Code, and the legislation is probably a bit out of date."

In its submission, Seqwater called for a process whereby it should be able to remove unknown equipment after "genuine efforts" have been made to locate the owner, as well as notifying ACMA.

Queensland Water Directorate CEO David Cameron pointed out the issue the mobile equipment can have on maintenance of water assets.

"It's ironic. At the end of the day, both are essential services when you're dealing with cyclones or major events or whatever it might be," he said.

"But at those times, when things get hectic, they can almost be competing services, if you can't manage the power issues for the telecommunications and you can't fix a hole in a reservoir roof."

In an earlier submission to the committee, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) said the use of higher frequencies in 5G does not mean higher exposure levels.

"Current research indicates that there is no established evidence for health effects from radio waves used in mobile telecommunications. This includes the upcoming roll-out of the 5G network. ARPANSA's assessment is that 5G is safe," the agency said.

If exposed to energy levels 50 times higher than the Australian standard, heating of tissue can occur, such as when welding or exposed to AM radio towers, but that is why safety precautions are taken, ARPANSA said.

The submission also reiterated the scientific fact that radio waves are non-ionising, and cannot break chemical bonds that could lead to DNA damage.

ARPANSA struck out at bogus science circulated online as not having balance, cherry-picking data, and not taking a weight of evidence approach.

"No single scientific study, considered in isolation, will provide a meaningful answer to the question of whether or not radio waves can cause (or contribute to) adverse health effects in people, animals or the environment," the submission said.
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Source: ZDNet, Chris Duckett, 29 Nov 2019

Excessive Use Of Smart Phone Putting Children's Health At Risk
Pakistan Created: 3 Dec 2019
Excessive use of smartphone is dangerous for children's health and may cause cancer, tumours such as glioma and acoustic neuroma as brain tissue of children absorbed about two times more microwave radiations than that of adults and the bone marrow of children soak up 10 times more radiation.

Talking to APP, Dr Ikram ul Haq said low intelligence quotient and improper mental growth in children, sleep deprivation, brain tumours and psychiatric diseases were caused by excessive use of phones.

He said excessive use of phones had an adverse effect on our body, especially on the growing skulls of children, toddlers and teenagers and it could trigger the development of brain cancer in future.

He said cell phones have non-ionising radiations. Many researches proved that children and unborn babies do face a greater risk for bodily damage that resulted from microwave radiations given off by wireless devices.

The rate of microwave radiations absorption was higher in children than adults because their brain tissues were more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size was smaller, he added.

When we approached another expert to know about the preventive measures, Dr Babar Nadeem, said although wireless devices were now part of our everyday life, but they could be used in a manner that is safe enough.

He said most important point was the distance, holding a cell phone few inches away from our ear would reduce the risk by 1,000 times.

Dr Nadeem said just like Belgium, France, Germany and other technologically sophisticated governments, our government should also pass laws that ensure issuing of warnings about children's use of wireless devices.

He said the best place to keep a cell phone was in a pouch, purse, bag or a backpack.

Moreover, these devices should be kept away from a pregnant woman's abdomen. If a woman was a mother then she should not use a cell phone while breastfeeding or nursing.

Children and teenagers needed to know how to use mobile phones and wireless devices safely, he said, cell phones should not be permitted in children's bedrooms at all.

Good health was above wealth, but a majority of people undermine their personal health and become more careless about their children's mental and physical state.
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Source: UrduPoint, Zeeshan Aziz, 03 Dec 2019

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