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Brit dad sues Nokia for up to £1million claiming using his mobile phone caused his brain tumour
United Kingdom Created: 16 May 2018
Neil Whitfield, 60, says he developed an acoustic neuroma tumour due to heavy phone use for his job in the late 1990s.

A salesman who suffered a brain tumour is suing Nokia for ­“significant” compensation which could hit £1million – in a case that could cost mobile phone firms a fortune. Father-of-six Neil Whitfield, 60, claims heavy mobile phone use in the late 1990s caused a deadly growth.

He was left deaf in one ear after surgery in 2001 to remove a growth the size of a golf ball. He also suffers with balance problems. “I spent almost five years glued to my phone hours at a time until I was diagnosed. I could feel the heat coming off it.

Neil is the first Brit to sue a mobile phone company on these grounds and the case – six years in the making – could trigger hundreds of similar claims.

Solicitor Katrina Pope, of London Corporate Legal, in Mayfair, expects to make a “strong claim” by the end of 2018.

Katrina, who has been working unpaid on the case since 2012, said: “A win in the High Court could set a legal precedent for other cases which we are aware of and that are watching our progress.

“It is ultimately about justice for many people who have, akin to Neil, been victims of what some experts describe as the ‘smoking gun of the 21st century’.

“Neil’s personal injury claim is outside the legal time frame of three years. We argue it’s only now that the technology exists for radiation testing to allow us to bring the case – the first in Britain.”

Millions of Brits used Nokia phones in the 1990s. In 1995 just seven per cent of Brits had a cell phone but by 1999 one was sold every four seconds – and Nokia was the biggest manufacturer of mobiles.

Figures published last week show cases of a brain tumour called glioblastoma in England rose from 983 to 2,531 between 1995 and 2015. It is found in the forehead and side regions of the brain.

And a study in the Journal of Public Health and Environment found higher rates of tumours in the frontal ­tem-poral lobe which “raises the suspicion mobile and cordless phone use may be promoting gliomas”.

The law firm has commissioned experts to carry out radiation tests on Nokia phones used by Neil, including the 5510. Katrina said: “The evidence is being collated.” The surgeon who removed Neil’s tumour at Manchester’s Royal ­Infirmary, Professor Shakeel Saeed, said of the case: “At a personal level one cannot rule out the risk based on the current evidence.”

Cancer Research moved to quell panic, saying there is no conclusive evidence that mobiles cause problems.

An Italian lawyer whose landmark case ruled a link between tumours and mobile phones said Neil’s battle would be watched by the world.

Stefano Bertone won a state-funded pension for Roberto Romeo, 57, after claiming excessive mobile use caused his acoustic neuroma tumour – the same type as Neil’s.

Roberto who used his phone for work for three to four hours every day for 15 years.

A court in Ivrea, Italy, awarded him £418 a month under a government workplace insurance scheme.

Stefano said: “We watch the UK case with interest. The argument required to prove causation in Roberto’s case against a government agency was less than would be required in a case against the manufacturer. The outcome in Mr Whitfield’s case will be used in other cases across the world.

“In America the class action is tied up in lengthy legal process, so Europe really is leading the field.”
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Mirror, Grace Macaskill, 12 May 2018

You are probably not getting enough sleep, and it is killing you
United Kingdom Created: 30 Apr 2018
Rocker Warren Zevon is often credited with coining the mantra that’s been embraced by everyone from partying college kids to early-morning exercise evangelists: “You can sleep when you’re dead”.

Or as Bon Jovi put it, “Gonna live while I'm alive, I'll sleep when I'm dead.”

It’s an intoxicating thought, but the truth is that not getting enough sleep is literally killing us.

That’s what neuroscientist Matthew Walker, who directs the sleep and neuroimaging lab at UC Berkeley, says in his book, ‘Why We Sleep,’ which was published in October 2017.

Walker has dolled out sleep advice to the NBA, NFL and Pixar, among others. His first book is a deep dive into the latest research on the importance of sleep, as well as a how-to guide for getting better sleep.

He succinctly summed up his overall stance on snoozing for Business Insider: “The shorter your sleep, the shorter your life,” Walker said.

It’s estimated that two thirds of adults around the world aren’t getting enough sleep. The World Health Organisation and Walker both recommend about eight hours a night as a good baseline.

Walker argues that routinely getting only six or seven hours of shut-eye per night can do serious long-term damage to your health, and in some cases even kill you. He insists on a strict eight hours of "sleep opportunity" for himself. That means he's in bed for at least eight hours a night, even if he spends a portion of that time falling asleep and waking up. He says that schedule helps keep him productive, as well as emotionally and physically fit.

Here are three of the key ways Walker says a lack of sleep can hurt your body and brain.

Lack of sleep puts the immune system at a disadvantage

When you haven't slept enough, it’s harder for the body to fight off illnesses ranging from the common cold to cancer. Sleep deprivation depletes stores of your “natural killer cells,” a type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that nix tumor and virus cells. A single 4- or 5-hour night of sleep could lower your body’s "natural killer" cell count by around 70%, Walker says.

Missing sleep can also put your body on a crash course for chronic disease. Insufficient sleep has been linked to increased instances of Alzheimer's, obesity, stroke, and diabetes. Lack of sleep changes how insulin operates in your body and how quickly your cells absorb sugar. After a week of short sleep nights (say, five or six hours), your doctor could diagnose you with pre-diabetes, Walker says. That means your blood sugar levels are elevated enough that you're on track to become a diabetic. Long-term damage to your heart, blood vessels, and kidneys could already be in motion in such circumstances.

It's true that some people, a "sleepless elite" as Walker calls them, are built to survive on less sleep and will sleep just six hours, even in laboratory sleep conditions. Such lucky individuals make up just a fraction of one percent of the population, Walker says, and share a gene (BHLHE41) that's incredibly rare. (If you think you have it, you probably don't.)

Just an hour of lost sleep can kill

Walker likes to say that "there is a global experiment performed on 1.6 billion people, twice a year." You probably call it Daylight Saving Time.

After we lose an hour of sleep every spring when the clocks get pushed forward, car accident rates jump. Walker's seen this play out in the lab too — after study participants spent two weeks sleeping for seven hours instead of nine, their reaction times slowed by half a second. That's a long lapse if you're cruising at 60 mph. The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety has studied car crashes in the US, and found that tired drivers kill about 6,400 people a year.

Heart attacks also spike 25% around Daylight Saving Time, since sleep deprivation puts more stress on the heart. Researchers have found that men in Japan who sleep less than six hours a night are 400-500% likelier to have a heart attack than their better-rested counterparts.

Sleep debt is carcinogenic

Insufficient sleep makes the body a better breeding ground for cancer. Sleepiness is now being blamed for cases of colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. An off-kilter sleep schedule may also give rise to cancer, since it causes melatonin to be suppressed. The World Health Organisation calls night work a "probable carcinogen."

Because of all these factors, scientists warn that hanging on to the idea that you'll sleep when your dead is truly deadly advice.

If you're not sleeping enough, "you will be both dead sooner, and the quality of your (now shorter) life will be significantly worse," Walker told Business Insider.
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Independent, Hilary Brueck, 30 Apr 2018

Dame Judi Dench in planning row over phone mast near her Cornwall home
United Kingdom Created: 20 Apr 2018
Dame Judi Dench has been criticised for comments she made over plans for a phone mast in Cornwall where she has a second home.

The comments by the Oscar-winning actress have prompted calls that only people who live in an area should be allowed to have a say on its development.

It relates to an application for planning permission for a 15-metre phone mast by telecoms company EE.

The company applied last year for permission to erect the mast at Treen, on the north coast of Penwith near to Zennor, St Ives.

Dame Judi said in her objection: “The serenity of the area, those that live here, its wildlife and wonderful natural beauty would be adversely affected. I feel strongly that we should protect this.”

As it turned out, planning permission for the mast was refused under delegated powers by Cornwall Council planners in August last year.

The company EE then applied for a much smaller 7.7 metre mast at the same site in December. This application was also rejected by planners.

But now, EE has appealed against the decision to turn down the original 15-metre mast and the matter is before the Planning Inspectorate for consideration.

While Dame Judi made her comments for the original application, the appeal has reignited the debate about whether second home owners have the right to object to infrastructure projects in areas where they go on holiday.

Speaking to the Sunday Telegraph, Grant Shapps, the former Tory party chairman, said: “Obviously we all want beautiful parts of our countryside to remain special, but for people who live and work in an area with poor mobile connectivity, this can mean being forced to travel to an office rather than working from closer to home.

“So bad reception can add to congestion, environmental damage and inconveniences everyone. Nowadays people expect coverage whenever they go and there are good business and family reasons to complete the UK's mobile network.

"It should be for people who actually live in an area to determine what infrastructure is required."

Dame Judi was one of 45 people who commented on the original application. Cornwall Council’s planning website lists her entry as “Mrs Dame Judi Dench (Objects)”.

Her objection reads: “ I continue to visit Cornwall, as I have done for a number of years, and have always been mesmerised by its pristine scenery. Not only is it one of the most stunning coastlines in the United Kingdom...but in the world.

“This telecoms mast would simply ruin the landscape. This is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and this construction would inevitably halt a number of special visits to the location.

“The serenity of the area, those that live here, its wildlife and wonderful natural beauty would be adversely affected. I feel strongly that we should protect this.

Dame Judi has previously lent her support to the Cornish charity Fishermen's Mission, in which she has publicly supported a number of fundraising campaigns.

Cornwall Council is to defend the appeal by EE. Cornwall Council planners said on the application: “The appeal site is in an open rural landscape where it is intended to conserve the upland rural character of the locality. The locality is a scenic, unique and historic landscape which is highly popular for these characteristics.

“The proposal would introduce a modern structure of substantial height into this sensitive landscape which will not integrate well. The resultant harm is considered contrary to policies of the CLP [Cornwall Local Plan] which seek to conserve and enhance such landscapes. The benefits offered by the proposal do not outweigh the harm.”

A final decision on the appeal is due to be made at later date.
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Cornwall News, Graeme Wilkinson, 16 Apr 2018

Getting to grips with the ‘invisible enemy’ of RF radiation
United Kingdom Created: 25 Mar 2018
A UK register is the first database of its kind to explore the effects of long-term occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields.

The use of radiofrequency (RF) radiation has become intrinsic to modern life, and the connectivity it provides central to the way we communicate with colleagues, clients, friends and family. The technology has been with us since the turn of the 20th century and part of the working environment since the introduction of radio broadcasting in the 1930s. Its use extends beyond telecommunication and broadcasting to include applications across healthcare, engineering and manufacturing.

RF radiation refers to electromagnetic fields that lie between the 3kHz and 300GHz frequencies; the variation in the properties of these fields alters not only their commercial use but also the way in which they interact with the human body. Compared to many hazards RF cannot be seen, heard or felt and has been termed ‘the invisible enemy’.

With continuing concern over the possible effects of RF exposure in the workplace, the European Union produced the Physical Agents Directive for EMF. Designed to reduce the risk from short-term acute exposures, it was transposed into UK law in July 2016. The exact content of the Control of Electromagnetic Fields at Work Regulations were refined following extended conversations between the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) and representatives from a range of relevant industries including the engineering and manufacturing sectors.

The HSE has strived to ensure that the impact on UK business is minimised, with many of the duties placed on employers reflecting those already in place in the existing Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations such as requirements for risk assessments and health surveillance. In supporting compliance, Cenelec, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation, has developed guidance for employers in the form of standardised assessment protocols produced for small businesses, involving practical advice presented in plain English.

Current exposure limits are based on the prevention of scientifically proven short-term health effects. At lower frequencies these manifest as disturbances to the nervous system and can lead to peripheral-nerve stimulation or dizziness and nausea; at higher frequencies there are heating effects causing partial or whole-body heat stress. However there is a growing body of evidence that has explored the wider impact of RF radiation on living systems. The International Agency for Research into Cancer, the body responsible for promoting international collaboration in cancer research, collated much of this scientific evidence and in 2011 decided that RF was a possible carcinogen with limited evidence of an association with cancer in humans. Notably, they concluded that the existing evidence base exploring health effects in those who are occupationally exposed was inadequate.

The lack of quality research into the health of those working with RF might be seen as surprising when you consider that occupational exposure guidelines are higher than the equivalent public limits. It’s therefore reasonable to assume that if there is the potential for adverse health effects they would be more likely to emerge in the working population first, that is within the group that can be more exposed than others. However, reliably linking exposure data for specific groups of employees to their health records presents a challenge in a workforce as diverse as those that use RF radiation.

In response, the HSE has worked with the University of Birmingham to establish the National Register of RF Workers – the first database of its kind created specifically to explore the effects of long-term occupational exposure to RF. The Register is a resource designed to allow an agile response to any emergent health concerns and is already supporting an investigation into the prevalence of cancer among those exposed to RF through their work. The initiative has been welcomed by Public Health England and the recruitment to the Register of employees with the potential to be exposed above public guidelines is continuing. It’s imperative that we never become complacent about the safety of our workforce, and if we are to continue to support safe working with RF that we understand as much as possible about the ‘invisible enemy’.

Ian Litchfield is a research fellow at the University of Birmingham.
Full details of the National Register of RF Workers and how to participate are available online:
or email
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Engineering & Technology, Ian Litchfield, 12 Mar 2018

Important court ruling on rooftop masts and planning control
United Kingdom Created: 24 Feb 2018
Thanks to Danielle in the forum, who's won a judicial review ruling that pole mounts are in fact masts, see Mawbey vs Lewisham.

Here's what "Council Magazine" has written about the ruling:
"Town and country planning – Permitted development. The term 'mast' in para A.1(2)(c) of Pt 16 of Sch 2 to the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (England) Order 2015, SI 2015/596, should be broadly interpreted, such that each central support pole was a radio mast, as it supported antennae which transmitted and received radio waves. Accordingly, the Planning Court, in allowing the claimant's application for judicial review, held that the defendant local planning authority had wrongly interpreted that provision by having found that the support poles installed at a building had not been masts."


Please also see the discussion thread on the forum, here:
Click here to view the source article.
Source: MV Forum, Danielle, 24 Feb 2018

Visualising Electromagnetic Fields
United Kingdom Created: 8 Feb 2018
This project set out to explore the world around us that is increasingly populated by invisible phenomenon. Most of the modern technology that we use is sometimes invisible. As interaction designers, we constantly talk about them and use them to shape experiences. This project provides a visual framework with which to visualise these unseen phenomena, to enable open dialogue and communication between many disciplines and shared personal interests.

Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) are invisible to humans but they exist around all devices with electrical and magnetic parts. Using custom software, long exposure photography and stop-frame animation, a light-painting technique was developed that captured and visualised the EMF around everyday objects like our laptops and radios.

Collaboration with: Shamik Ray.

Visit the source link below to see the videos...
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Luke Sturgeon & Shamik Ray, 08 Feb 2018

Cell phone radiation linked to cancer in rats in first-ever large government-funded study
United Kingdom Created: 6 Feb 2018
Cell phone radiation could pose a risk of certain cancers to some, the preliminary findings of two new major studies from the National Institutes Health suggest.

Six percent of male rats exposed to the same kind of radiation our cell phones emit - though in much larger quantities - developed a type of cancer called a schwannoma in their hearts.

The pair of studies are the largest the National Toxicology Program has ever conducted about the carcinogenic effects of cell phone radiation.

The authors caution that while much more research is needed to find out whether or not the ways that average people use cell phones could raise cancer risks, the findings highlight an 'area of concern'.

Over the course of the last two years, researchers at the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have been exposing rats and mice to varying levels of cell phone radio frequency radiation.

In 2016 - early days in the research timeline - the NIH scientists released preliminary data warning that it seemed there was a very possible link between cell phone radiation and cancer.

That early release prompted a spate of related research, which, in turn, prompted the state of California and former NIH toxicologists, among others, to issue warnings in the last year.

Smartphones and other wireless devices put out small amounts of low frequency microwave radiation when they connect networks and transmit information.

This energy is not nearly as strong as ultraviolet radiation or X-ray energy, but the new studies add to the mounting evidence that even microwave radiation, in high doses, can pose some health risks.

In their multi-million dollar study, the NTP researchers exposed rats and mice to high levels of radiation over the course of 18 hours each day, alternating 10-minute exposures with 10-minute periods without exposures.

Radiation surges when cell phones are trying to connect to faint network signals or transmit large amounts of information.

Experts warn that it is these inconsistent exposures that make the devices particularly risky.

'Our ultimate findings are about the same as we put out in 2016,' says study co-author Dr John Bucher.

What they found, both early on and at the end of the study, was that there were 'statistically significant' differences in the incidence of heart schwannoma tumors in rats.

The incidences of other cancers were not higher, statistically speaking, than the researchers would have expected to see in rats as they aged in general.

Schwannomas develop from peripheral nervous cells, called Schwann cells. They develop inside the sheath that covers nerves, wrapping and interfering with nerves themselves.

In humans, these tumors are usually benign. These noncancerous schwannomas are most common in the vestibular nerve that connects the brain and the ear.

Malignant schwannomas can start anywhere, but seem to be most common in the leg, arm or lower back, sometimes causing a bump, pain, muscle weakness or tingling.

Though they are not common in human hearts, cardiac tissue is a good target for cell phone radiation, Dr Bucher says.

Microwave radiation works by heating water. Muscle tissue - like the heart - is 75 percent water, while fat, for example, is only about 10 percent water.

That means that muscular tissues are especially affected by cell phone radiation, which my explain why the nerve tumors were most likely to form in a highly muscular organ.

Counter-intuitively, bigger animals are more sensitive to radiation.

So, the higher rate of tumors in males 'was probably due to the fact that male rats simply absorb more radiation than females as a function of the size of the animal,' Dr Bucher explained.

Similarly, cancer risks for mice were negligible, and female rats that were pregnant - and therefore larger - were also more sensitive to radiation.

Though Dr Bucher says the levels of microwave radiation the animals were exposed to were much higher than we encounter from our cell phones, humans are, of course, considerably larger than rats.

It is also worth note that radiation exposures in the study would still comply with federal regulations on heat microwave heat generated by cell phones, and still there were increased risks of at least one cancer for rats.

Dr Joel Moskowitz, director of the Center for Family and Community Health at the University of California, Berkeley said that 'the federal radio frequency radiation limits should be re-assessed and strengthened in light of these findings.'

The NTP findings have not been peer-reviewed yet, but Dr Bucher said that they are 'important because they give us an area of concern, and we now have a starting place where we might know where to look' for potential cancer risks from cell phones.
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Daily Mail, Natalie Rahhal, 02 Feb 2018

Secret Military base locations exposed by SmartWatch data
United Kingdom Created: 28 Jan 2018
Strava, a company that collects data from SmartWatches, like "FitBits" has released a so-called "heat map" built from SmartWatches GPS-data that geographically track the places where people frequent and do their exercise. Military bases are places where intense training and exercise is done, so they show up like fireflies on the map. Also secret outposts in scarcely populated areas are places where movement and patrol routes are repeated over and over, thus showing up clearly on the map.
Mr. Tobias Schneider has collected some of them on his Twitter page, here:

Even the U.S. Pentagon seems to be frequented by SmartWatch users, unwittingly creating a blue-print of the top-secret buildings entries and passage ways:
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Twitter, Tobias Schneider, 27 Jan 2018

New code favours mobile phone mast operators
United Kingdom Created: 28 Dec 2017
NEW rules on communications infrastructure equipment will boost phone companies’ rights and could lead to a fall in revenues for some landowners, top property experts have warned.

The Electronic Communications Code , which comes into force from December 28, is being introduced under the Digital Economy Act 2017, governing agreements between site providers and operators for telecom apparatus such as masts and cables.

Related news:
Dec 2017, United Kingdom: Farmers warned against accepting 'one-sided' telecoms deals

The code is a statutory scheme of rights and obligations which operates in parallel with any contractual arrangements – and may in many instances override such an agreement.

According to Mike Reid, head of Energy and Utilities at Galbraith, the new code will enable operators to enter land against the landholder's wishes in order to install, erect, maintain and use any form of electronic communications apparatus, and any ancillary equipment needed to enable that.

“Site providers need to be aware of the provisions as they strengthen operators’ rights and change some provisions which have become commonplace in current agreements,” said Mr Reid. "The ECC strengthens operators’ rights and will see a fall in some site providers’ revenues, particularly for those receiving payments for ‘site sharing’ – where masts are used by more than one mobile-phone company."

Under the ECC, operators gain automatic rights to upgrade and share apparatus without permission from the landowner, provided there is minimal adverse visual impact or additional burden. They can assign agreements without owners seeking improved terms, and landlords lose the right to choose future tenants, raising concerns over compliance with lease obligations, particularly site restoration provisions.

Mr Reid continued: “The new ECC clearly strengthens the operators’ rights and it is important that landowners receive professional advice to help protect their interests in a changing regulatory environment."

Strutt and Parker's Ian Thornton-Kemsley agreed: “There has been a rush to complete agreements before the new code comes into force as it fundamentally changes the relationship between affected landowners and operators. Any agreement not completed by December 28 will fall into the provisions of the new code.

“Purchasers of property will need to ensure sufficient due diligence is carried out during conveyancing to establish whether any telecommunications right affect the property. Unfortunately, a reform of the registration regime has not been included in the new code. Agreements will be overriding interests capable of binding successors in title even where they haven’t been registered. If there is a telecoms interest this is likely to affect value and this may lead to delay and increased costs in conveyancing."
Click here to view the source article.
Source: The Scottish Farmer, Kelly Finlay, 27 Dec 2017

Farmers warned against accepting 'one-sided' telecoms deals
United Kingdom Created: 19 Dec 2017
Farmers and landowners have been urged to refuse any template telecoms agreement for siting a mobile phone mast on land after the new Telecoms Code takes effect on 28 December 2017.

There are fears the terms of any such agreement could leave farmers and landowners at a significant disadvantage.
A new electronic communications code, introduced as part of the Digital Economy Act 2017, will become law on 28 December 2017.
The code is a statutory scheme of rights and obligations which enables operators to enter land against the landholders wishes in order to install, erect, maintain and use any form of electronic communications apparatus.
It allows operators to obtain rights over land and to remain on land against the landowners wishes.


Robert Paul, one of the UK’s leading experts on the telecoms market who works for Strutt & Parker, said mobile phone operators have been trying to agree a standard lease document with the input of a body of landowners’ representatives ahead of the new code coming into force.

“They argue that this will simplify the process of getting agreements in place, which will help them as they try to speed up the rollout of mobile and broadband services,” Mr Paul explained.
“However, given the NFU, CLA and other industry bodies have recently withdrawn from the process, it is likely that any agreement will be one-sided in favour of the operators and not a true reflection of what rights the code actually gives to them.
“In our view, the concept of a standard agreement for telecoms sites is flawed anyway. The industry does not operate on standard lease terms now – it never has done, and there is no reason why it should start happening now.”

'Aggressive approach'

Mr Paul said he had already seen indications that operators intend to take a more aggressive approach to the acquisition and handling of sites once the new code takes effect.
He said it is vital that site providers are aware of their rights under the new arrangements.
He added: “The operators interpret the code in a very different way to how we would. For example, the new code does aim to make it easier for operators to upgrade and share their equipment with other operators to help increase coverage.

“But this does not mean that an operator has unfettered rights under the new code to add equipment installed on a site, much as operators would like people to believe that. The code does give them greater powers, but they have to jump through a number of hoops first.”


There is also the issue of rents which Strutt & Parker do not see tumbling in the way the operators predict.
Strutt & Parker’s most recent telecoms survey showed that the average greenfield rent for a mobile phone mast was £6,000 per year, but Cornerstone Telecommunications Infrastructure Limited (CTIL) are suggesting payments based on compensation only and paying just a few thousand pounds as a one-off payment for a long-term lease.

Mr Paul continued: “Landowners, particularly those in remote rural areas, are as keen as anyone to see improved mobile and broadband connections, but they cannot be expected to sign up without question to agreements that could have a significant impact on their normal business operations.

“It is important that site providers are aware that even though the new Telecoms Code does give the operators greater powers, landowners still have the right to negotiate around the terms of any agreement.
“If approached by an operator asking to inspect a potential site, we would advise property owners to agree terms first before granting entry.

“Those with existing telecoms equipment on their property should also carefully consider their position following the introduction of the new code.”
Click here to view the source article.
Source: Farming UK, 19 Dec 2017

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